Information on parent education-
For parents/guardians of students with dyslexia and related disorders.
Texas Education Code (TEC) §38.003 defines dyslexia and related disorders in the following way: “Dyslexia” means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity. “Related disorders” include disorders similar to or related to dyslexia, such as developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability.
The International Dyslexia Association defines “dyslexia” in the following way: Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
Characteristics of Dyslexia are different by age but may include:
o Difficulty reading real words in isolation
o Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense or unfamiliar words
o Slow, inaccurate or labored oral reading; poor reading fluency
o Difficulty learning to spell accurately
Dyslexia Awareness Information for Parents, Students and Teachers
Delivery of Dyslexia Intervention -
While it is necessary that students are provided intervention in the above content, it is also critical that the way in which the content is delivered be consistent with research-based practices. Principles of effective intervention for students with dyslexia include all of the following:
• Simultaneous, multisensory
• Systematic and cumulative
• Explicit instruction
• Diagnostic teaching to automaticity
• Synthetic instruction
• Analytic instruction
Providers of Dyslexia Instruction-
In order to provide effective intervention, school districts are encouraged to employ highly trained individuals to deliver dyslexia instruction. Teachers, such as reading specialists, master reading teachers, general education classroom teachers, or special education teachers, who provide dyslexia intervention for students are not required to hold a specific license or certification. However, these educators must at a minimum have additional documented dyslexia training aligned to 19 TAC §74.28(c) and must deliver the instruction with fidelity.
Instructional and Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities-
Accommodations provide the student with dyslexia effective and equitable access to grade-level or course instruction in the general education classroom.
Listed below are examples of reasonable classroom accommodations:
• Copies of notes (e.g., teacher- or peer-provided)
• Note-taking assistance • Additional time on class assignments and tests
• Reduced/shortened assignments (e.g., chunking assignments into manageable units, fewer items given on a classroom test or homework assignment without eliminating concepts, or student planner to assist with assignments)
• Alternative test location that provides a quiet environment and reduces distractions
• Priority seating assignment
• Oral reading of directions or written material
• Word banks
• Text to speech
• Speech to text
• Electronic spellers
• Electronic dictionaries
• Formula charts
• Adaptive learning tools and features in software programs
Educators, parents, and students must understand that accommodations provided during classroom instruction and testing might differ from accommodations allowed for use on state assessments. The state assessment is a standardized tool for measuring every student’s learning in a reliable, valid, and secure manner. An accommodation used in the classroom for learning may invalidate or compromise the security and integrity of the state assessment; therefore, not all accommodations suitable for instruction are allowed during the state assessments.
For more information about accommodations on statewide assessments, visit
Response to intervention (RTI):
RTI is a multistep, or tiered, approach to providing services and interventions at increasing levels of intensity to students who struggle with learning. The progress students make at each stage of intervention is closely monitored. Results of this monitoring are used to make decisions about the need for further research-based instruction and/or intervention in general education, in specialized instructional settings, or both. Individual campuses and teachers monitor the RTI progress of their students as needed.
Lampasas Middle School/High School